GLOSSARY and USEFUL LINKS
AAMVA. The American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators is a tax-exempt, nonprofit organization developing model programs in motor vehicle administration, law enforcement and highway safety. The association also serves as an information clearinghouse in these areas, and acts as the international spokesman for these interests. The AAMVA participated in the development of the Commercial Driver Licensing System (CDL) used in the United States. www.aamva.org
Advocates for Highway and Auto Safety is an alliance of consumer, health and safety groups and insurance companies and agents working together to make America’s roads safer. Advocates encourages the adoption of federal and state laws, policies and programs that save lives and reduce injuries. By joining its resources with others, Advocates helps build coalitions to increase participation of a wide array of groups in public policy initiatives which advance highway and auto safety. www.saferoads.org
ATA. American Trucking Associations, Inc. is the national image and advocacy organization for the US trucking industry. www.trucking.org
ATRI. The American Transportation Research Institute’s primary mission is to conduct transportation research with an emphasis on the trucking industry’s essential role in a safe, efficient, and viable transportation system. ATRI, part of the American Trucking Associations Federation, is a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit research organization headquartered in Arlington, Virginia. ATRI and its predecessor organization the ATA Foundation have been engaged in critical transportation studies and operational tests since 1954. It co-sponsored the CMV Driver Fatigue and Alertness Study conducted by Dennis Wylie and his colleagues. https://truckingresearch.org
CDL. Commercial Driver’s License. See 49 CFR 383. Dennis Wylie played a key role in developing and implementing the CDL licensing system that is now used throughout the United States to license commercial drivers.
CFR. Code of Federal Regulations. www.gpo.gov
CMV. Commercial motor vehicle. A vehicle (or vehicle plus trailer) used in interstate commerce (i.e., transporting anything that originated out of state) that is rated (or is loaded to) more than 10,000 pounds total weight, or a vehicle used to transport more than 8 passengers (including the driver) for compensation, or a vehicle used to transport more than 15 passengers not for compensation, or any vehicle used to transport hazardous materials requiring vehicle placarding. (See 49 CFR 390.5 for details). Such a vehicle requires a driver who has DOT medical certification and who complies with the federal hours of service regulations (49 CFR 395). In addition, if the vehicle totals more than 26,000 pounds (or vehicle with a trailer of greater than 10,000 pounds, where the total combination exceeds 26,000 pounds), the driver must have a Commercial Driver’s License (49 CFR 383).
CVSA. The Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance is an international not-for-profit organization comprised of local, state, provincial, territorial and federal motor carrier safety officials and industry representatives from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Its mission is to promote commercial motor vehicle safety and security by providing leadership to enforcement, industry and policy makers. CVSA member jurisdictions are represented by various Departments of Transportation, Public Utility and Service Commissions, State Police, Highway Patrols and Ministries of Transport. In addition, CVSA has several hundred associate members who are committed to helping the Alliance achieve its goals: uniformity, compatibility and reciprocity of commercial vehicle inspections, and enforcement activities throughout North America by individuals dedicated to highway safety and security. cvsa.org
ELDs, AOBRs. Electric Logging Devices and Automotive On-Board Recording Devices take the place of the paper logs most drivers were required (federal regulation 49 CFR 395) to use prior to 2017 in order to record the time and the geographical location of each change of duty status (i.e., driving, on-duty not driving, sleeper berth, off duty). Logging is intended to permit a law enforcement officer to verify whether a driver is in compliance with the hours of service limits, but some drivers falsified their paper logs in order to drive more hours. Electronic logs automatically record a truck’s location (using GPS), engine on/off, truck speed, etc. The devices make logging easier and more accurate and they are tamper-resistant.
FMCSA. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration. The FMCSA’s primary mission is to prevent commercial motor vehicle-related fatalities and injuries. Activities of the Administration contribute to ensuring safety in motor carrier operations through strong enforcement of safety regulations; targeting high-risk carriers and commercial motor vehicle drivers; improving safety information systems and commercial motor vehicle technologies; strengthening commercial motor vehicle equipment and operating standards; and increasing safety awareness. To accomplish these activities, the Administration works with Federal, State, and local enforcement agencies, the motor carrier industry, labor safety interest groups, and others. The FMCSA sponsored the Commercial Motor Vehicle Driver Fatigue and Alertness Study conducted by Dennis Wylie and his colleagues and subsequently revised their Commercial driver hours-of-service regulations to increase required off-duty time by 25%. www.fmcsa.dot.gov
Heavy Duty Trucking. HDT is a leading trade magazine. Its website Truckinginfo.com offers daily news and in-depth information on equipment, operations, regulations, environmental issues, and more. It’s the flagship of HDT’s online and digital media offerings, which also include e-mail newsletters like HDT’s Headline News and HDT’s Equipment Report, webinars, Blogs, Got Questions? and more. www.truckinginfo.com
GPS. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The system provides critical capabilities to military, civil and commercial users around the world. It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.
HOS. Hours of service regulations. The federal hours of service regulations (49 CFR 395) forbid more than 11 cumulative hours of driving and driving after the 14th hour of coming on duty except under special circumstances; further driving cannot be done until 10 consecutive hours off duty are taken. Drivers cannot drive after having been on duty more than 60 hours in 7 days or 70 hours in 8 days until at least 34 consecutive hours are taken off duty. Drivers of passenger-carrying vehicles do not have the option to reset the 60/70 hour calculation with 34 hours off duty.
IIHS. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety is an independent, nonprofit scientific and educational organization dedicated to reducing the losses — deaths, injuries and property damage — from crashes on the nation’s roads. For decades, IIHS has been a leader in finding out what works and doesn’t work to prevent motor vehicle crashes from happening in the first place and to minimize injuries in the crashes that still occur. www.iihs.org
Motor Carrier Safety Report. A publication of J.J. Keller & Associates, a privately-held company that helps businesses, large and small, deal with the complex and constantly evolving regulations that affect their operations. www.jjkeller.com
National Sleep Foundation. The National Sleep Foundation is a 501(c)3 charitable, educational, and scientific not-for-profit organization dedicated to improving sleep health and safety through education, public awareness, and advocacy. One major area of concern is inadequate sleep by drivers, which causes fatigue and loss of alertness. www.sleepfoundation.org
NHTSA. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. NHTSA is responsible for reducing deaths, injuries and economic losses resulting from motor vehicle crashes. This is accomplished by setting and enforcing safety performance standards for motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment, and through grants to state and local governments to enable them to conduct effective local highway safety programs. NHTSA investigates safety defects in motor vehicles, helps states and local communities reduce the threat of drunk drivers, promotes the use of safety belts, child safety seats and air bags, and provides consumer information on motor vehicle safety topics. NHTSA also conducts research on driver behavior and traffic safety, to develop the most efficient and effective means of bringing about safety improvements. www.nhtsa.gov (see also www.distraction.gov)
NTSB. The National Transportation Safety Board is an independent federal agency charged by Congress with investigating every civil aviation accident in the U.S. and significant accidents in other modes of transportation – railroad, highway, marine and pipeline. The NTSB determines the probable cause of each accident investigated and issues safety recommendations aimed at preventing future accidents. In addition, the NTSB carries out special studies concerning transportation safety. www.ntsb.gov
SAE. Society of Automotive Engineers. SAE International is a global body of scientists, engineers, and practitioners that advances self-propelled vehicle and system knowledge in a neutral forum for the benefit of society. SAE has great influence on industry by connecting a global network of students, engineers, practitioners, and companies; attracting, managing, and distributing mobility-related information through education, standards, technical publications, leading in global standardization, and creating and sustaining beneficial affiliations and interfaces that add value, encourage innovation, and help form sound public policy. www.sae.org
TDC. Transport Canada is analogous to the U. S. Department of Transportation. The Transportation Development Centre (TDC) is Transport Canada’s central research and development branch. It manages a multimodal R&D program aimed at improving the safety, security, energy efficiency, and accessibility of the Canadian transportation system, while protecting the environment. Its mandate is to enhance the department’s technological capability, to address the department’s strategic objectives and federal government priorities, and to promote innovation in transportation. It co-sponsored and assisted with the CMV Driver Fatigue and Alertness Study conducted by Dennis Wylie and his colleagues, and sponsored additional driver fatigue studies conducted by D. Wylie Associates. www.tc.gc.ca/eng/innovation/tdc-menu.htm
TRANSPORT TOPICS. Transport Topics is American Trucking Associations’ weekly print and online newspaper of trucking and freight transportation. www.ttnews.com
TRB. Transportation Research Board. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. TRB is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council— a private, nonprofit institution that is the principal operating agency of the National Academies in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The National Research Council is jointly administered by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. TRB’s varied activities annually engage more than 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest by participating on TRB committees, panels, and task forces. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.trb.org/main/home.aspx
Truck Safety Coalition. The Truck Safety Coalition is a partnership between the Citizens for Reliable and Safe Highways (CRASH) Foundation, and Parents Against Tired Truckers (P.A.T.T). The Truck Safety Coalition is dedicated to reducing the number of deaths and injuries caused by truck-related crashes, providing compassionate support to truck crash survivors and families of truck crash victims, and educating the public, policy-makers and media about truck safety issues. www.trucksafety.org
UMTRI. The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute is committed to interdisciplinary research that will ultimately increase driving safety and further transportation systems knowledge. UMTRI is currently operating a research program of more than $10 million in expenditures, with funds received from federal and state government agencies, motor vehicle manufacturers and suppliers, and other organizations. www.umtri.umich.edu
VTTI. Virginia Tech Transportation Institute serves as Virginia Tech’s largest university-level research center. The center is dedicated to conducting research to save lives, save time, and save money in the transportation field by developing and using state-of-the-art tools, techniques, and technologies to solve transportation challenges. VTTI’s cutting-edge research is affecting significant change in public policies on both the state and national levels. The institute conducts applied research to study transportation challenges from various perspectives: vehicle, driver, infrastructure, and environment. To accomplish its groundbreaking research, VTTI has a wide range of tools, including facilities such as the Virginia Smart Road and VTTI’s in-house Data Acquisition Systems (DAS). These capabilities have earned VTTI a unique standing in the transportation research field. www.vtti.vt.edu